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Timothy Pollock



VC Reputation Index


Press Coverage

Personal Interests








Listed below you will find information about my publications as well as abstracts of my current working papers. A downloadable version of my complete curriculum vitae is also available in Adobe Acrobat format. If you have any questions about my work, please contact me at Thank you for your interest.


Refereed Publications

Chaterjee, A. & Pollock, T.G. 2017. Master of puppets: How narcissistic CEOs construct their professional worlds. Academy of Management Review, Forthcoming. Full Text PDF.

Pollock, T.G., Lee, P.M., Jin, K. & Lashley, K. 2015. (Un)Tangled: Exploring the asymmetric co-evolution of VC firm reputation and status. Administrative Science Quarterly, 60(3): 482-517.Full Text PDF. ASQ Blog Interview

Acharya, A.G. & Pollock, T.G. 2013. Shoot for the stars? Predicting the recruitment of prestigious directors by newly public firms. Academy of Management Journal, 56(5), 1396-1419. Full Text PDF.

Boivie, S., Graffin, S.D. & Pollock, T.G. 2012. Time for me to fly: Predicting director exits from large firms. Academy of Management Journal, 55(6): 1334-1359. Full Text PDF.

Lee, P.M., Pollock, T.G. & Jin, K. 2011. The contingent value of venture capitalist reputation. Strategic Organization, 9(1): 33-69. Full Text PDF.

Pfarrer, M.D., Pollock, T.G. & Rindova, V.P. 2010. A tale of two assets: The effects of firm reputation and celebrity on earnings surprises and investors' reactions. Academy of Management Journal, 53(5) 1131-1152. Full Text PDF. Winner, Oxford University Centre for Corporate Reputation Best Published Paper Award for 2010.

Mishina, Y., Dykes, B.J., Block, E.S. & Pollock, T.G. 2010. Why good firms do bad things: The effects of high aspirations, high expectations and prominence on the incidence of corporate illegality. Academy of Management Journal, 53(4): 701-722. Full Text PDF. Video of me discussing the study. Finalist, Academy of Management Journal Best Paper Award for 2010.

Pollock, T.G., Chen, G., Jackson, E.M. & Hambrick, D.C. 2010. Just how much prestige is enough? Assessing the value of multiple types of high-status affiliates for young firms" Journal of Business Venturing, 25(1): 6-23. Full Text PDF.

Pollock, T.G., Fund, B.R. & Baker, T. 2009. Dance with the one that brought you? Venture capital firms and the retention of founder-CEOs. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3: 199-217. Full Text PDF.

Chen, G., Hambrick, D.C. & Pollock, T.G. 2008. Puttin' on the ritz: Pre-IPO enlistment of prestigious affiliates as deadline-induced remediation. Academy of Management Journal, 51(5): 954-975. Full Text PDF.

Detert, J.R. & Pollock, T.G. 2008. Values, interests and the capacity to act: Understanding professionals' responses to market-based improvement initiatives in highly institutionalized organizations. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44(2): 186-214. Full Text PDF.

Wade, J.B., Porac, J.F., Pollock, T.G. & Graffin, S.D. 2008. Star CEOs: Benefit or burden? Organizational Dynamics, 37(2): 203-210. Full Text PDF.

Pollock, T.G., Rindova, V.P. & Maggitti, P.G. 2008. Market Watch: Information and Availability Cascades in the U.S. IPO Market. Academy of Management Journal, 51(2): 335-358. Full Text PDF. Winner, 2009 AOM Entrepreneurship Division IDEA Award for best entrepreneurship research published in 2008.

Pollock, T.G. & Gulati, R. 2007. Standing out from the crowd: The visibility enhancing effects of IPO-related signals on alliance formations by entrepreneurial firms. Strategic Organization, 5(4): 339-372. Full Text PDF.

Wade, J.B., O'Reilly, C.A. & Pollock, T.G. 2006. Overpaid CEOs and underpaid managers: Fairness and executive compensation. Organization Science, 17(5): 527-544. Full Text PDF. Business Press coverage of the study

Wade, J.B., Porac, J.F., Pollock, T.G. & Graffin, S.D. 2006. The Burden of celebrity: The impact of CEO certification contests on CEO pay and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 49(4): 643-660. Full Text PDF. Business Press coverage of the study

Rindova, V.P., Pollock, T.G. & Hayward, M.L.A. 2006. Celebrity firms: The social construction of market popularity. Academy of Management Review, 31(1): 50-71. Full Text PDF. Business Press coverage of the study

Mishina, Y., Pollock, T.G. & Porac, J.F. 2004. Are more resources always better for growth? Resource stickiness in market and product expansion. Strategic Management Journal, 25: 1179-1197. Full Text PDF

Pollock, T.G. 2004. The benefits and costs of underwriters' social capital in the U.S. IPO market. Strategic Organization, 2(4): 357-388. Full Text PDF

Fischer, H.M. & Pollock, T.G. 2004. Effects of social capital and power on surviving transformational change: The case of initial public offerings. Academy of Management Journal, 47: 463-481. Full Text PDF

Hayward, M.L.A. Rindova, V.P. & Pollock, T.G. 2004. Believing one's own press: The antecedents and consequences of chief executive officer celebrity. Strategic Management Journal, 25(7): 637-653. Full Text PDF. Business Press coverage of the study

Pollock, T.G., Porac, J.F. & Wade, J.B. 2004. Constructing deal networks: brokers as network ‘architects’ in the U.S. IPO market and other examples. Academy of Management Review, 29(1): 50-72. Full Text PDF

Pollock, T.G. & Rindova, V.P. 2003. Media legitimation effects in the market for initial public offerings. Academy of Management Journal. 46(5): 631-642. Full Text PDF. Business Press coverage of the study. Reprinted in Strategies for New Venture Development, edited by Ari Ginsberg, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010.

Carpenter, M.A., Pollock, T.G. & Leary, M.M. 2003. Governance, the experience of principals and agents, and global strategic intent: Testing a model of reasoned risk taking. Strategic Management Journal, 24: 803-820. Full Text PDF. Reprinted in International Entrepreneurship, edited by Benjamin M. Oviatt and Patricia P. McDougal, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007.

Pollock, T.G., Fischer, H.M. & Wade, J.B. 2002. The role of power and politics in the repricing of executive options. Academy of Management Journal, 45: 1172-1182. Full Text PDFBusiness Press coverage of the study

Pollock, T.G., Whitbred, R.C. & Contractor, N. 2000. Social information processing and job characteristics: A test and integration of two theories with implications for job satisfaction." Human Communication Research, 26(2), 292-330. Full Text PDF

Thomas, H. & Pollock, T.G. 1999. From I-O economics’ S-C-P paradigm through strategic groups to competence-based competition: Reflections on the puzzle of competitive strategy. British Journal of Management, 10(2), 127-140.   Full Text PDF. Reprinted in Corporate Strategy (Vol. 1), edited by Jeffrey A. Krug, Sage Publishing, 2009.

Porac, J.F., Wade, J.B. & Pollock, T.G. 1999. Industry categorizations and the politics of the comparable firm in CEO compensation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(1), 112-144. Full Text PDF

Thomas, H., Pollock, T. & Gorman, P. 1999. Global strategic analysis: Frameworks and approaches. Academy of Management Executive, 13(1), 70-82. Full Text PDF

Wade, J.B., Porac, J.F. & Pollock, T.G. 1997. Worth, words and the justification of executive pay. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 641-664.  Full Text PDF

Wade, J.B., Porac, J.F., Pollock, T.G. & Meindl, J. 1997. Hitch your wagon to a CEO star? Testing two views about the pay, reputation and performance of top executives. Corporate Reputation Review,1:1-2, 103-107.  Full Text PDF

Invited Publications

Pollock, T.G. & Bono, J.E. 2013. From the Editors – Being Scheherazade: The importance of storytelling in academic writing. Academy of Management Journal, 56(3): 629-634. Full Text PDF.

Barnett, M.L. & Pollock, T.G. 2012. Building and maintaining a strong corporate reputation: A broad look at a core issue. European Financial Review, August/September: 6-9. Full Text PDF.

Grant, A.M. & Pollock, T.G. 2011. From the Editors - Publishing in AMJ - Part 3: Setting the hook. Academy of Management Journal, 54(5): 873-879. Full Text PDF.

Baker, T. & Pollock, T.G. 2007. Making the marriage work: The benefits for strategic organization from strategy's takeover of entrepreneurship. Strategic Organization, 5(3): 297-312. Full Text PDF.



Barnett, M.L. & Pollock, T.G. (co-editors) 2015. Corporate Reputation: Critical Perspectives on Business and Management. Oxford, UK: Taylor and Francis. Introduction Chapter PDF.

Barnett, M.L. & Pollock, T.G. (co-editors) 2012. The Oxford Handbook of Corporate Reputation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Winner, 2013 Bright Idea Award from Seton Hall University and the New Jersey Policy Research Organization. Introduction Chapter PDF. Book Reviews in Administrative Science Quarterly and Organization Studies.

Book Chapters

Pollock, T.G., Mishina, Y. & Seo, Y. 2016. “Falling stars: Celebrity, infamy, and the fall from (and return to) grace. In D. Palmer, R. Greenwood & K. Smith-Crowe (eds.) Organizational Wrongdoing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press: 235-269. Full Text PDF

Pollock, T.G. & Lashley, K. 2014. Who needs a shrink when you have BusinessWeek? Using content analysis to get inside the heads of Entrepreneurs, VCs and other market participants. In T. Baker and F. Welter (Eds.) The Routledge Companion to Entrepreneurship. Oxford, UK: Routledge: 423-438. Full Text PDF

Baker, Pollock, T.G. & Sapienza, H.J. 2013. Winning an unfair game: How a resource-constrained player uses bricolage to maneuver in a highly institutionalized field. In, A. Corbett & J. Katz (Eds.) Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth, 15. London, UK: Emerald Publishing: 1-41. Full Text PDF

Fund, B.R., Pollock, T.G., Baker, T. & Wowak, A. 2008. Who's the new kid? The process of becoming central in venture capitalist deal networks. In J.A.C. Baum & T.J. Rowley (Eds.) Advances in Strategic Management, 25. London, UK: Emerald Publishing: 563-593. Full Text PDF

Porac, J.F., Mishina, Y. & Pollock, T.G. 2002. Entrepreneurial narratives and the dominant logics of high growth firms. in Anne Huff & Mark Jenkins (Eds.) Mapping Strategic Knowledge, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage: 112-136. Full Text PDF


Conference Proceedings

Lashley, K., Pollock, T.G. & Misangyi, V. 2016. Weed, words and winning: Entrepreneurial storytelling in a stigmatized industry. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research BCERC Proceedings.

Hubbard, T.D., Pollock, T.G., Pfarrer, M.D. & Rindova, V.P. 2016. Pump up the volume: The effects of celebrity and status on newly-public firms’ access to resources. Best Papers Proceedings, Academy of Management Annual Meeting, OMT Division. Full Text PDF

Pollock, T.G., Lee, P.M., Jin, K. & Lashley, K. 2014. Chicken or egg: Exploring the co-evolution of VC firm reputation and status. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research BCERC Proceedings.

Pollock, T.G., Lee, P.M., Jin, K. & Lashley, K. 2014. Chicken or egg: Exploring the co-evolution of VC firm reputation and status. Best Papers Proceedings, Academy of Management Annual Meeting, OMT Division.

Mishina, Y., Pollock, T.G. & Bragaw, N.A. 2012. Know when to hold 'em, know when to fold 'em? Differentiating between loss aversion and the house money effect in CEO reactions to firm performance. Best Papers Proceedings, Academy of Management Annual Meeting, OMT Division.

Lee, P.M., Pollock, T.G. & Jin, K. 2007. Substance, symbolism and the 'signal strength' of venture capitalist prestige. Best Papers Proceedings, Academy of Management Annual Meeting, BPS Divsion. Full Text PDF

Pollock, T.G., & Baker, T. 2005. Who's minding the store? Venture capitalist styles and the replacement of founder-CEOs. The Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Proceedings of the Babson/Kauffman Entrepreneurship Research Conference, 403-415.

Pollock, T.G., Gulati, R. & Sadler, A. 2002. Relational and market-based legitimation of internet IPOs. Best Papers Proceedings, Academy of Management Annual Meeting, BPS Division11-16. Full Text PDF

Working Paper Abstracts

Mishina, Y., Pollock, T.G. & Bragaw, N.A. Know when to hold 'em, know when to fold 'em? Differentiating between loss aversion and the house money effect in CEO reactions to firm performance Revise and Resubmit at Strategic Management Journal

Abstract: This study attempts to differentiate between the effects of loss aversion and the house money effect on CEO decision making by examining the effects of performance relative to aspirations on the CEO’s compensation mix, and whether these effects are influenced by the firm’s prominence. We find more general support for the predictions based on the house money effect than those based on loss aversion. Further, the prominence of the firm appears to decrease the percentage of cash compensation in the mix when performance is below aspirations.

Lovelace, J., Bundy, J., Hambrick, D.C. & Pollock, T.G. “The shackles of celebrity: How star CEOs’ socio-cognitive and behavioral constraints affect firm performance” Third Revise and Resubmit at Academy of Management Review

Abstract: We set forth a new theory for understanding the consequences of CEO celebrity. The fulcrum of our theory is the reality that CEOs attain celebrity because they are cast into specific archetypes rather than for their general or abstract achievements. We present a typology of common CEO celebrity archetypes (creator, savior, rebel, transformer), and then detail a model to highlight the mechansims and consequences associated with attaining celebrity of a given type. These consequences span the socio-cognitive (including social pressure to remain true to type) and the behavioral (including tendencies to persist with and exaggerate prior celebrity-garnering actions), ultimately constraining celebrity CEOs’ repertoires to those behaviors associated with their particular celebrity archetypes. We further describe how a CEO’s personal drive for celebrity, as well as the temporal arc (i.e. rate of ascent and duration) of celebrity act as moderators, amplifying the socio-cognitive and behavioral outcomes of CEO celebrity. Finally, we argue that the effects of CEO celebrity on firm performance are contingent on the continuity of external and internal contextual conditions. If conditions change appreciably, the celebrity CEO’s socio-cognitive and behavioral rigidities become severe liabilities, explaining the documented tendency for CEO celebrity to bring about, on average, unfavorable firm outcomes.

Hubbard, T., Pollock, T.G., Pfarrer, M.D. & Rindova, V.P. "Safe bets or hot hands? How status and celebrity influence newly-public firms’ strategic alliance formations" Under Second Review at Academy of Management Journal

Abstract: Social approval assets are a class of intangible assets based on favorable stakeholder perceptions and evaluations. In this study we theorize how social approval assets with different socio-cognitive content serve as frames that influence the way equivocal information about a firm is interpreted. We argue that when assessing equivocal information cues, different frames will focus attention on the aspects of the information cue that are congruent with the frame. We also argue that since the assets present incongruent frames, possessing both leads to weaker effects than possessing each asset alone. Specifically, we examine how firm celebrity—an asset derived from perceived non-conformity that engenders high levels of attention and excitement—and status—an asset based on occupying a desirable position in a social hierarchy—influence the interpretation of a newly-public firm’s underpricing, and thus its effect on the firm’s strategic alliance formations. We also consider whether possessing both status and celebrity is associated with fewer strategic alliances than possessing one asset or the other. We test these theoretical ideas in the ambiguity-ridden context of Internet IPOs during the commercial dawn of the Internet between 1995 and 2000. Our findings generally support our arguments, providing new theory and evidence about the dynamics of information and frame (in)congruence, as well as about the framing effects of social approval assets with different socio-cognitive content.

Gomulya, D., Lee, P.M. Pollock, T.G. & Jin, K.“Great expectations: How IPO firm delistings affect the reputations of the venture capital firms that backed them” Revise and Resubmit at Academy of Management Journal

Abstract: Considerable attention has been devoted to the antecedents and benefits of individual and organizational reputation. However, less attention has been paid to the mechanisms behind reputational damage, particularly indirect damage caused by the failures of other, associated firms. In this study we examine the effects of negative reputation spillovers on venture capital firms’ reputations that result from the failures of the newly-public firms they once funded. Drawing on the expectancy violation literature, we argue that endorsements by reputable VC firms create high expectations that maintain a nexus between the newly-public firm and its former VCs that can result in a negative reputation spillover when the newly-public firm fails. We find that stakeholders’ expectancy violations alone are sufficient to damage a VC’s reputation, and that the market’s initial reactions to the IPO and the IPO firm’s post-IPO performance can, respectively, intensify and attenuate this effect.

Lashley, K. & Pollock, T.G. "Waiting to inhale: Destigmatizing the medical cannabis industry" Revise and Resubmit at Administrative Science Quarterly

Abstract: In this study we take an inductive approach to understanding how actors in the core-stigmatized medical cannabis industry attempt to increase audience support and remove their industry’s stigma. Prior studies have primarily focused on organizational stigma and have shown that core-stigmatized organizations generally try to manage core stigma by concealing it, rather than actively working to remove it. Thus, we know little about the process of stigma removal, particularly when the stigma exists at the industry level and is not associated with a specific event, but is instead derived from a generalized negative perception of the category of goods being traded. We contribute to the growing literature on stigma by showing that when organizations engage in processes of morality infusion, they can largely remove industry-level core stigma. This morality infusion process involves using narratives and substantive actions to tie their industry and firms to an alternative set of values, creating an identity and image that resonates with critical stakeholders. Through this process entrepreneurial firms build moral legitimacy, a key antecedent to destigmatization.

Lashley, K. & Pollock, T.G. "Dancing with giants: How small, women- and minority-owned firms manage asymmetric relationships with large partners" Under First Review at Organization Science

Abstract: How do minority- and women-owned businesses who participate in supplier diversity programs manage their persistently asymmetric relationships with larger, more powerful partners? This study seeks to answer this question, and in doing so, extend our understanding of the options that are available to low-power firms responding to institutional changes intended to create opportunities, but that unintentionally erect additional barriers to success. We explore this question inductively in the context of supplier diversity relationships, where small, minority- and women-owned suppliers must manage the opportunities and challenges that they encounter as they work with much larger buyer organizations. We find that these easily substitutable firms use various brokerage configurations to create soft power that ultimately secures their positions in the supply chain through relational inertia. Our findings contribute to the supplier diversity literature. Furthermore, we identify sources of “soft power” that have not been considered previously, and elaborate on how those are used to manage asymmetric relationships. We also contribute to research on brokerage by directing our attention to how those being brokered can manage and manipulate the brokers employed for their benefit.

Pollock, T.G., Baker, T. & Sapienza, H.J. "Piecing it togeher: Achieving competitiveness via human capital bricolage"

Abstract: We introduce and develop the concept and primary dimensions of human capital bricolage and explain why new firms commonly engage in this practice and what they must do to manage it effectively. We theorize core dimensions of human capital bricolage and show that if managed in a way to elicit cooperation from employees it can be a driver of sustained competitiveness. Our arguments provide the basis for a broader conceptualization of entrepreneurial strategy than is common in the research literature and provide a better fit with empirical evidence regarding entrepreneurs’ varied goals and motivations.

Acharya, A.G. & Pollock, T.G. "Too many peas in a pod? The internal governance consequences of director status homogeneity in newly public firms"

Abstract: This study explores how director status homogeneity influences board dynamics and organizational outcomes in newly public firms. We argue that the presence of directors of similar global status can lead to unfavorable firm outcomes, and that different characteristics of the team and the presence of a powerful CEO can influence these dynamics. Our findings suggest that the relationship between status homogeneity and board function is nuanced, and that status homogeneity can provide both costs and benefits, depending on the context. When deciding whether or not to stay on or exit a board, status homogeneity appears to decrease the likelihood of director exit for high-status directors, while for non-high-status directors CEO ownership and structural power shape the influence status homogeneity has on director exit. With respect to the influence of status homogeneity on performance, high-status homogeneity increases accounting performance when tenure overlap is high and financial performance when expertise overlap is low, but has a negative relationship with performance when the conditions are reversed. Status homogeneity among non-high-status directors, however, appears to be unrelated to firm performance. These findings have a number of implications for both theory and practicing managers.

Seo, Y. & Pollock, T.G. “Can you buy an image? Examining post-acquisition firm images in the food processing industry”

Abstract: Using a unique dataset of food processing industry acquisitions from 2007 to 2012, I draw on the image, categorization and impression management literatures to examine whether firms can buy an image by acquiring firms that possess the image they desire. The results suggest that the wider the image gap between the acquirer and target, the worse the image of the acquirer will be after the acquisition. In order to mitigate potential negative reactions and/or facilitate positive reactions by the media, organizational leaders can engage in multiple anticipatory impression management tactics, but the effectiveness of these tactics depends on the image that the target possesses, in some cases leading the impression management tactics to backfire. I derive implications for research about firms that plan to change their image a result of emerging new businesses that emphasize their social strength, as well as broader theoretical implications for the literatures on image, categorization and impression management.

Fund, B.R. & Pollock, T.G. "Social Capital Management: Transferring, appropriating and replenishing individual social capital for firms"

Abstract: Research on dynamic capabilities has recognized the importance of social capital, but has not considered how personnel mobility inherent in dynamic competitive environments influences a firm’s access to social capital, and how social capital can be managed to build and maintain dynamic capabilities. We argue that social capital exists at both the individual and collective levels and its control can be passed from individuals to organizations when individuals move on from the organization. We distinguish among social capital transfer, appropriation, and replenishment as three different ways control over access to social capital can be passed from individuals to organizations.  Extending prior research on social exchange and network development, we argue that various configurations of four rebalancing operations can be deployed using different tactics to facilitate social capital management under different levels of cooperativeness. We also discuss how our model can be studied empirically and the future research directions that flow from it.



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